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Jonathan's Space Report
No. 664 draft                                      2012 Jul 27  Somerville, MA USA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

International Space Station
----------------------------

On the ISS, Expedition 32 continues with astronauts Gennadiy Padalka, Sergey
Revin, Joseph Acaba, Yuriy Malenchenko, Sunita Willams and Akihiko Hoshide.
Soyuz TMA-05M docked with the Rassvet module on Jul 17 at 0451 UTC.

Progress M-15M redocked with Pirs at 0101 UTC on Jul 29 in a successful test
of the new Kurs-NA automatic rendezvous system. The cargo ship undocked once
more on Jul 30 at 2119 UTC.

Progress M-16M was launched on Aug 1 at 1935 UTC and tested a new fast rendezvous profile,
docking with Pirs on Aug 2 at 0118 UTC.

Curiosity at Mars
------------------

The Mars Science Laboratory 'Curiosity' landed successfully on Mars on Aug 6 at 0517:57 UTC.
The rover landed in Cydonia's Gale Crater at  137.440247  deg longitude, -4.591817 deg latitude.

MSL was launched on 2011 Nov 26 intlo a 0.98 x 1.54 AU solar orbit with
an ecliptic inclination of 1.7 deg.  On Aug 4 it entered the Martian
gravitational sphere of influence on a hyperbola with an inclination of
5.1 deg and periares of -64 km; it entered the Martian atmosphere on Aug
6. The planned sequence of events, as best I have been able to determine
them, was: (updated Aug 4 based on the list by Patrick Blau at
spaceflight101.com and supplemented by my own research)


   UTC (GMT)
   0500       MSL spacecraft approaching Mars, total mass 3759 kg 
   0500:47    MSL Cruise Stage separates (460 kg)
   0505:17    CBMD 1 and CBMD 2 balance weights (75 kg each) separate
   0510:46    MSL entry vehicle, Cruise Stage and CMBD 1/2 all hit the nominal top of the 
                 atmosphere 125 km up at an inertial velocity of 6.1 km/s
              Entry vehicle mass is 3150 kg              
              Entry location is about 700 km west of the landing site
   0512       Cruise Stage will be destroyed in the upper Martian atmosphere
                over Cyclopia, Aeolis Quadrangle
   0514:17    Six 25 kg EBMD balance weights jettisoned, reducing mass to 3000 kg
   0514?      CMBD 1 and 2 weights impact Martian surface west of Robert Sharp Crater?
   0514:35    Cruise stage separation signal received on Earth
   0514:51    21m diameter parachute deployed, height 10 km, 
               reduce Mars-relative speed from 0.5 to 0.1 km/s
              Descent over Aeolis Palus, Gale Crater at 137E 4S  
   0515:20    Heatshield jettisoned (385 kg?)
   0515?      EBMD (Entry Balance Mass Device) weights impact surface
   0516?      Heatshield impacts surface
   0516:31    Backshell jettisoned (about 450kg?) together with parachute (54 kg)
              Skycrane begins powered descent with 8 MR-80B hydrazine rockets
              Skycrane/Rover mass is now 2115 kg (1728 kg dry plus 387 kg propellant)

   0517?      Backshell impacts surface
   0517:14    Skycrane hovers at 20m and lowers Rover on 7.5m long cable
   0517:25    Rover touchdown (899 kg), cable release, 829 kg Skycrane scoots off to the side
   0517:40?   Skycrane impacts surface 
   0524:34    Atmosphere entry signals received on Earth
   0531:13    Touchdown signal received on Earth
   0534?      First images received showing rover wheel on surface.

  Previous Mars missions have typically dumped about 1 tonne each into the Martian atmosphere,
  with about half that as intact landed mass; MSL sent almost 4 tonnes in with 
  almost 1 tonne landing intact.
 
  Mars Atmospheric Entries - with mass breakdown in kg
  ------------------------
  
               
  Date         Spacecraft      Mass  (kg)
                               Entry  = Burnt-up + Prop + Deliberate + Crashed + Landed
                                                           Impact     (failed)   intact
  
  1971 Nov 27  Mars-2 SA            1210     0      0      565      645          0
  1971 Dec  2  Mars-3 SA            1210     0      0      565        0        645 (sort of)
  1974 Mar 12  Mars-6 SA            1210?    0      0     1210      645          0 
  1976 Jul 20  Viking Lander 1       983     0    103      290        0        590
               (Mutch Station)
  1976 Sep  3  Viking Lander 2       983     0    103      290        0        590
               (Soffen Station)   
  1997 Jul  4  Mars Pathfinder       795   210     21      291        0        273
               (Sagan Station)
  1999 Sep 23  Mars Climate Orbiter  623   338    285        0        0          0
  1999 Dec  3  Mars Polar Lander     558?   82     39      140      297          0
               and Deep Space 2
  2003 Dec 25  Beagle-2               68     0      0       35       34          0
  2004 Jan  4  Spirit Lander        1010   183     37      363        0        427
               (Columbia Station)
  2004 Jan 25  Opportunity Lander   1015   188     37      363        0        427
               (Challenger Station)
  2008 May 25  Mars Phoenix Lander   655    82     58      172        0        343
  2012 Aug  6  Curiosity            3759   459    387     2014        0        899
  
  Note: Airbag mass counted as deliberate impact even though attached to intact lander.

 
  Mars Artificial Orbiting Objects
  --------------------------------
  
  Date         Spacecraft        Dry Mass (kg)     Last Known Mars Orbit
                                                  (km x km x deg, date )
  1971 Nov 14  Mariner 9               555      1645 x 16838 x 64.4 (1972)
  1971 Nov 27  Mars-2                 2350?     1380 x 25000 x 48.9 (1971)
  1971 Dec  2  Mars-3                 2350?     1500 x205000 x 62.0 (1971)
  1974 Feb 12  Mars-5                 2350?     1760 x 32560 x 35.3 (1974)
  1976 Jun 19  Viking Orbiter 1        883       411 x 56275 x 37.9 (1980)
  1976 Jul 21? VO-1 Bioshield Base      74      1504 x 32574 x 37.8 (1976)
  1976 Aug  7  Viking Orbiter 2        883       302 x 33080 x 80.3 (1978)
  1978 Mar  3  VO-2 Bioshield Base      74       302 x 33080 x 80.3 (1978)
  1989 Jan 29  Fobos-2                2300?     6145 x  6409 x  1.3 (1989)
  1989 Feb 18  Fobos-2 ADU             570?     6145 x  6409 x  1.3 (1989)
  1997 Sep 12  Mars Global Surveyor    674       356 x   419 x 93.0 (2006)
  2001 Oct 24  Mars Odyssey            376       341 x   433 x 93.0 (2012)
  2003 Dec 25  Mars Express            632       305 x 10536 x 86.9 (2012)
  2006 Mar 10  Mars Recon. Orbiter     984       218 x   292 x 92.6 (2012)
  




Rokot
-----

The Khrunichev Rokot launch vehicle returned to flight on Jul 28 putting
four satellites in low orbit. Kosmos-2481 is a Strela-3M military
communications satellite; two Gonets-M satellites are the civilian
counterparts of the Strela-3M; and MiR is a small technology satellite.
MiR, named after spacecraft designer Mikhail Reshetnyov (1924-1996),
carries student technology experiments from SibGAU, the Siberian State
Aerospace University in Krasnoyarsk. The satellites were deployed in a
1483 x 1506 km x 82.5 deg orbit; the Briz upper stage then made a
depletion burn to 1164 x 1504 km. Briz malfunctioned during the previous
Rokot launch in 2011, leaving the Geo-IK-2 satellite in the wrong orbit,
but this time appears to have operated correctly.

Arianespace
-----------

Arianespace flight VA208, probably using Ariane 5ECA launcher L564,
placed two communications satellites in geostationary transfer orbit on
Aug 2. Intelsat IS-20 will provide C and Ku-band comms to Asia, Africa
and the MidEast, replacing IS-7. It is a Loral 1300 satellite with a
mass of 6094 kg full 2989 kg dry. The much smaller Hylas 2, for Avanti
Communications, will support Europe, Africa and the MidEast with Ka-band
broadband communications; it is an Orbital Star-2.4E with a mass of 3311
kg full 1532 kg dry.


IGS Radar-1
-----------

nJapan's Jouhoushushu eisei Reda 1 gouki satellite, known in English as
Information Gathering Satellite 1B, or IGS Radar-1, reentered on Jul 26
over the Pacific. The 1200 kg satellite lost power in 2007.

Proton failure
---------------

A Proton launched from Baykonur on Aug 6 placed a Briz-M upper stage and two
satellites in a suborbital path. The Briz-M burned to a 173 km initial orbit,
and then restarted to reach a 200 x 5000 km intermediate orbit. However the third
burn failed and the two payloads were stranded in this intermediate orbit.





2012 Orbital launch summary to date
-----------------------------------

45 launches: 
Russia China USA  Europe Japan India Iran N Korea
  15    11   9     5      2     1     1    1(fail)

Suborbital flights
------------------

JAXA followed on from NASA's IRVE-3 flight, launching their own MAAC
(Membrane Aeroshell for Atmospheric Entry Capsule)
inflatable reentry vehicle test from the Uchinoura Space Center
on Aug 7. The 20 kg, 1.2-meter-diameter test vehicle reentered from 150 km.


Erratum
-------

The TET-1 satellite was built by Astro-und-Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH,
not TUB; Kayser-Threde is the prime contractor, but the
satellite is owned by DLR, the German space research agency.



Table of Recent (orbital) Launches 
 ----------------------------------
Date UT       Name            Launch Vehicle  Site            Mission    INTL.  
                                                                          DES.
Jun  1 0523   Intelsat IS-19     Zenit-3SL         Odyssey, Pacific  Comms     30A
Jun 13 1600   NuStar             Pegasus XL        L-1011,Kwajalein  Astronomy 31A
Jun 16 1037   Shenzhou 9         Chang Zheng 2F    Jiuquan           Spaceship 32A
Jun 20 1228   USA 236 (NROL-38)  Atlas 5 401       Canaveral SLC41   Comms?    33A
Jun 29 1315   USA 237 (NROL-15)  Delta 4H          Canaveral SLC37B  Sigint?   34A
Jul  5 2136   Echostar 17  )     Ariane 5ECA       Kourou ELA3       Comms     35A
              Meteosat 10  )                                         Weather   35B
Jul  9 1838   SES-5              Proton-M/Briz-M   Baykonur LC81/24  Comms     36A
Jul 15 0240   Soyuz TMA-05M      Soyuz-FG          Baykonur LC1/5    Spaceship 37A
Jul 21 0206   Kounotori 3        H-IIB             Tanegashima LP2   Cargo     38A
Jul 22 0641   Kanopus-V )                                            Imaging   39
              BelKA-2   )        Soyuz-FG/Fregat   Baykonur LC31/6   Imaging   39
              TET-1     )                                            Tech      39D
              exactView-1)                                           Comms/AIS 39C
              MKA-PN1    )                                           Science   39E
Jul 25 1543   Tianlian-1 (03)    Chang Zheng 3C    Xichang           Comms     40A
Jul 28 0135   Gonets-M No. 13)   Rokot             Plesetsk LC133    Comms     41B
              Gonets-M No. 15)                                       Comms     41D
              Kosmos-2481 )                                          Comms     41A
              MiR         )                                          Sci       41C
Aug  1 1935   Progress M-16M     Soyuz-U           Baykonur LC1      Cargo     42A
Aug  2 2054   Intelsat IS-20 )   Ariane 5ECA       Kourou ELA3       Comms     43
              Hylas 2        )                                       Comms     43
Aug  6 1931   Telkom-3    )      Proton-M/Briz-M   Baykonur LC81/24  Comms     44
              Ekspress MD2)                                          Comms     44
           
Table of Recent (suborbital) Launches
----------------------------------

Date UT     Payload/Flt Name  Launch Vehicle  Site                   Mission    Apogee/km


Jun  7 1739   RV               Topol'             Kapustin Yar        Op Test     1000?
Jun 21 1040   NASA 41.101UO    Terrier Orion      Wallops I.          Education    117
Jun 22 1918   SHEFEX II        VS-40              Andoya              Hypersonic   177
Jun 23 1930   NASA 36.286UE    Black Brant 9      White Sands         Solar        300?
Jun 27 0915   FTM-18 Target    Castor 4B?         Kauai               Target       100?
Jun 27 0920?  FTM-18 KV        SM-3 Block IB      USS Lake Erie       Intercept    100?
Jul  3        Shahab RV        Shahab 1           ?, Iran             Exercise     100?
Jul  3        Shahab RV        Shahab 2           ?, Iran             Exercise     100?
Jul  3        Shahab RV        Shahab 3           ?, Iran             Exercise     150?
Jul  5 1850   NASA 36.284NS    Black Brant 9      White Sands         Solar        275?
Jul 11 1850   NASA 36.272NS    Black Brant 9      White Sands         Solar        268
Jul 23 1101   NASA 39.011NR    Black Brant 11     Wallops             Reentry test 458
Jul 24 1917   NASA 36.263US    Black Brant 9      White Sands         Solar        324
Aug  7 0730   S-310-41         S-310              Uchinoura           Reentry test 150

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|  Jonathan McDowell                 |  phone : (617) 495-7176            |
|  Somerville MA 02143               |  inter : planet4589 at gmail       |
|  USA                               |          jcm@cfa.harvard.edu       |
|                                                                         |
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