2.1: Centre National d''Etudes Spatiales (CNES), France

CNES (Centre National d''Etudes Spatiales, or National Space Study Center) has been France's national civil space agency since its formation in 1962. CNES is also involved in military space activities in association with the DMA (D'el'egation G'en'erale pour l'Armement), the division of the Minist`ere de la Defense responsible for arms procurement.

Sites are:

CNES division DGA at Toulouse: DGA/T/AE are the inhouse experts on space technology. DGA/T/TI supports software; DGA/T/EO carries out operations. Operations have an early role in projects and plan the ground segment. CST carries out Mise en Poste for satellites, does COLA and TCM for Spot, with delta inc burns a few times per year. GEO satellite trim burns are made every 2 weeks or so. Ground stations at Toulouse, Kourou, Pretoria and Kerguelen. DGA/T/RC develops comsats (Telecom 2, Stentor), COSPAS/SARSAT. The 406 MHz part of SARSAT is developed by Toulouse. DGA/T/IO takes care of microgravity and Mir payloads. DGA/T/SH covers Spot and Helios development. After Spot 5 and Helios 2, CNES will move to smaller platforms.

CNES astronauts have flown on both Soviet/Russian and US spaceflights:


Mission   Launch   Prime   Backup   Notes 

PVH   Soyuz T-6   Chretien   Baudry   1982, Premier Vol Habit'e 
Aragatz  Soyuz TM-7   Chretien   Baudry   1988  
Antares  Soyuz TM-15   Tognini   Haignere    
Altair   Soyuz TM-17   Haignere   Andre-Deshays   
Cassiopee  Soyuz TM-24   Andre-Deshays  Haignere 
Pegase   Soyuz TM-27   Eyharts   Haignere 
Perseus   Soyuz TM   Haignere   Andre-Deshays  Planned  
  STS 51-G   Baudry   Chretien   1985 
  STS-78   Favier     1996 
  STS-84   Chretien    1997 
  STS-93   Tognini     Planned